Mao Zedong is held in high reagrd in China as a great Marxian, proletarian revolutionist, strategist and
theoretician who drove out the aggression of Japanese imperialism, finalized the involuted situation of Chinese Civil War and eventually transformed the country into a major power through his policies. Mao Zedong was born into a farmer’s family in the town Shaoshan of Hunan province on Dec. 26th, 1893. From 1914~1918, he studied in the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan. During that period he devoted himself into revolutionary activities such as organizing revolution party with other schoolmates. As a pioneer who contacted and accepted Marxism at that time, in 1920, he founded the branch of Communism Party of China (CPC) in Hunan province.
On 23 July 1921, Mao, age 27, attended the first session of the National Congress of the CPC in Shanghai. Two years later, he was elected as one of the five commissars of the Central Committee of the Party. Later, Mao returned to Hunan at the instruction of the CPC Central Committee and the Kuomintang (KMT) Central Committee to organize the Hunan branch of the Kuomintang. In 1924, to promote the democracy revolution, overthrow the imperialism and feudalism, two major domestic parties CPC and KMT were united which is called the First Cooperation of KMT and CPC. Mao was a delegate to the first National Conference of the Kuomintang, where he was elected an Alternate Executive of the Central Committee. In the same year he became an Executive of the Shanghai branch of the Kuomintang and Secretary of the Organization Department, in charge of the newspaper Politics Weekly.
From 1925 winter to 1927 spring, Mao successively republished articles Analysis of Each Rank of Chinese Society and the Report of peasant uprisings in Hunan Province etc., which especially emphasized the vital status of peasant and the extremely importance that the proletariats should lead peasant to fight of that Chinese revolution circumstance. The ideology was considered the initial and decisive step towards the successful application of Mao’s revolutionary theories. In Aug. of 1927, when the First Cooperation of CPC and KMC broke up completely, in an urgent meeting held by the CPC Mao summed up from the historical lesson and proposed a important proposition, that, politics comes from the weapons, accentuating the importance of force power and army construction. After that, he went to the borderline between Hunan and Jiangxi Province, where he organized many peasant uprisings, and later established the first revolution base area in the Jinggang Mountains according to his theory of peasant revolution.
When the Anti-Japanese War begun from 1931, Mao launched and insisted on guerrilla tactics in a vast mountainous area of Northern China and some parts of champaign in Hebei and Jiangsu province. During these years, he proposed and perfected the Chinese-Marxism, combining Marxism and Leninism with the practice of Chinese revolution. Besides, he illuminated a policy of forming an Anti-Japanese National United Battlefront which incorporated with any other force that could be united, including KMT, to fight with the aggression of Japanese. This policy, named the Second Cooperation of KMT and CPC, was proved correct and made a success in defeating Japanese until in 1945, Japan declared surrender unconditionally. Subsequently, Mao went to Chongqing to negotiate with Jiang Jieshi, who is the leader of KMT at that time, to express the hope of settle down the national problem in a peaceful manner. However, as the negotiation didn’t address the key issues like how to manage the army and the areas controlled by CPC, the Chinese Civil War finally broke out in the summer of 1946. This war didn’t last for too long and ended up three years later with the sequel that KMT government was pulled down and moved to Taiwan Island.